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The oil palm, a foundation of agriculture in West Africa. Fruit is used to make palm oil, nuts to make palm kernel oil, and the juice to make palm wine and coutoucou (Ivorian name) or palm brandy. Edumfe, Ghana, 2003
Palm oil, extracted from the palm fruit by boiling and pressing. Edumfe, Ghana, 2003.
Palm wine production. Cut the roots, tip over the tree, cut out its heart, drill holes and allow sap to run into a container.
Freshly picked palm fruit. Comprised of a center nut that is surrounded by a rpck-hard shell. This is coated by a fibrous endosperm that is full of an orange oil and covered with an orange skin. Ghana, 2003.
Palm kernels, Ghana, 2003.
Young man selling palm wine, Ghana, 2003. Whenever you visit a village, you always bring something. Palm wine is a common gift.
Press for expressing palm oil. Ghana, 2006
Palm seeds waiting to be extracted by hand in order to produce palm kernel oil, which is colorless and clear. Ghana, 2006
Basket for holding the palm fruit waiting to be boiled. Ghana, 2006.
Palm fruit ready for boiling to soften and extract oil. Ghana, 2006
Pot with palm fruit being cooked. Ghana, 2006
Oil palm fruit being heated to extract the oil. Gyaware, Ghana, 2007
Women removing palm fruit in preparation for boiling them to extract the oil. Galebre, Côte d'Ivoire. 2007.
Palm kernels bagged and ready to be cracked open. Mmaniaye, Ghana, 2007.
Two stoves in an oil palm fruit cooking shed. Mmaniaye, Ghana
Basket of oil palm fruits ready for processing. Mmaniaye, Ghana, 2007
Picking up the palm fruit in order to boil them and extract the palm oil. Mmaniaye, Ghana, 2007
Basket of oil palm fruit ready for boiling to separate the red oil. Ebekawopa, Ghana, 2007. Photo by Stan Thompson.
Palm fruit in Mmaniaye, Ghana, 2007. Photo by Stan Thompson.
Palm oil factory, Ebekawopa, Ghana, 2008.
Palm fruit being prepared for boiling in order to extract the oil. Ebekawopa, Ghana, 2009.
Extracting the oil from boiled palm fruit. Ebekawopa, Ghana, 2009.
Pressing palm oil--near Ebekawopa, Ghana. August, 2011.
Pounding palm pulp to extract the oil.
Mmaniaye, Ghana, 2011.